Nita Chainani-Wu, Crystal Chang, Chelsia Sim, Timothy C Wu, Darren Cox, Davud Sirjani, Sol Silverman Jr
PMID: 31535489 DOI: 10.1902/cap.2015.150041
INTRODUCTION: Peri-implantitis is inflammation and alveolar bone loss around a dental implant. Published case reports have described squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) development around dental implants.
CASE PRESENTATION: A 60-year-old female presented with two small fistulas on the alveolar ridge of missing tooth #18. The mucosa around the fistulas appeared normal otherwise, with no hyperplasia, erythema, or keratotic changes. The patient had a 14-year history of recurrent erythroleukoplakia (with microscopic dysplasia) on the left tongue that had been managed by surgical removal (scalpel and carbon dioxide laser), biopsies, and close follow-up. She had no other medical conditions. She reported that she had an implant placed to replace tooth #18 4 years ago that had been removed without flap reflection, curettage, or biopsy 1 year previously as a result of peri-implantitis. Periapical radiographs showed that the peri-implant radiolucency in the region of tooth #18 was unchanged in dimensions from the time of implant removal 1 year ago. Curettage and biopsy of the area were performed and showed the presence of a well-differentiated SCC.
CONCLUSIONS: This is a case of peri-implant SCC development in a patient at high risk for oral SCC. The carcinoma was present within the alveolar defect in the area of a failed implant that had been removed 1 year previously. The overlying surface mucosa did not show the clinical changes typically seen in carcinoma. This case and others demonstrate the importance of periodic oral and radiographic examination after implant placement. Although rare, neoplasia must be considered in the evaluation of peri-implant pathology.
Early diagnosis and treatment of oral conditions is critical to maintain your oral and general health.